Lighting pole design requirements

Lighting pole design requirements.

Lighting pole design method.

Road lighting design should base on the characteristics of roads and places and lighting requirements, select the conventional lighting or high pole lighting.
The arrangement of conventional lighting fixtures can divide into five primary ways:

One-sided layout, two-sided staggered design, bilateral symmetrical layout, symmetrical interior layout, and horizontal suspension layout.

When using conventional lighting methods, it should be selected according to the road cross-section form, width, and lighting requirements, and should meet the following criteria:

When using high pole lighting, the lamp and its configuration, the installation position of the lamp pole, height, spacing.

The projection direction of the maximum light intensity of the lamp should meet the following requirements:

According to different conditions, plane symmetry, radial symmetry, and asymmetry can select.

The high pole lights arranged on the wide roads and around the vast area should adopt the symmetrical plane configuration;
The three-dimensional crossed pole lights arranged inside the venue or with a compact lane layout should take a balanced radial configuration;
The asymmetrical shape should adopt for high-pole lamps that are arranged in multi-layer large-scale three-dimensional intersections or lanes.

The calculation should determine no matter what kind of lamp configuration method is adopted.

The ratio of lamp pole spacing to lamp pole height according to the luminosity parameters of the lamps and lanterns;

Lampposts must not be located in dangerous locations or in places that severely impede traffic during maintenance;

The maximal light projecting direction of the luminaire and the intersection angle of the perpendicular should not exceed 65°;
The pole lights in urban areas should coordinate with the environment under the premise of satisfying the lighting function requirements.

The cantilever length of the luminaire should not exceed 1/4 of the installation height, and the elevation angle of the luminaire should not exceed 15°;
The arrangement of lamps, installation height, and spacing, can be determined after calculation.

Lighting pole design

Lighting energy-saving measures

Lighting energy-saving measures

Lighting energy-saving Reasonably selected lighting standard value

When designing lighting, a variety of design proposals that meet the requirements of the lighting standards should be proposed.

And comprehensive technical and economic analysis should be conducted to select the best solutions that are technologically advanced, economically reasonable, and energy-efficient.

The choice of Lighting energy-saving lighting equipment should meet the following requirements:
1. The performance indicators of the light source and ballast should meet the requirements of the current national energy efficiency evaluation standards for energy efficiency standards;
2. When selecting lamps and lanterns, under the premise of meeting relevant standards of lighting fixtures and requirements of light intensity distribution and glare limitation.
The efficiency of conventional road lighting fixtures shall not be lower than 70%; the efficiency of floodlights shall not be lower than 65%.
3, the power factor of the gas discharge lamp circuit should not be less than 0.85.

In addition to residential areas and a few roads with special requirements, the following measures should be taken to reduce road surface brightness (illuminance) in the middle of the night:

1, using dual light source lamps, closing a light source at night;
2, using devices that can automatically reduce the power of the light source at night;
3. Close not more than half of the fixtures, but not close the two fixtures adjacent in the longitudinal direction of the road.

Reasonable control methods should be selected, and control equipment with high reliability and good consistency should be adopted.
A maintenance plan should be established. Lamps cleaning, light source replacement, and other facilities should be regularly maintained.

Lighting power supply

Lighting power supply

Street lamp individual transformers should power lighting power supply urban street lighting.
Dual power sources shall power the lighting of the principal roads in the city, transportation hubs, and squares where people are concentrated.

Each power supply should be able to withstand 100% of the load.

Under normal operating conditions, the lighting terminal voltage should be maintained at 90% to 105% of the rated voltage.

The design of road lighting supply and distribution system should meet the following requirements:

1 The power supply network is designed to meet the needs of the plan.
The load factor of the distribution transformer should not be higher than 70%.
Underground cable lines should be used for power supply. When overhead lines are used, overhead insulated distribution lines should be used.
2 The transformer shall be a three-phase distribution transformer with D, yn11 as the tie-line group, and the transformer ratio and voltage tap shall be selected correctly;
3 Should take compensating reactive power measures;

4 The three-phase load should be balanced.

1. The cross-section of the neutral line of the distribution system should not be less than that of the conductors of the phase conductors and should meet the requirements for unbalanced currents and harmonic currents.
2. Road lighting distribution circuit should set up protection devices, each lamp should be equipped with a separate protection device.
3. Light poles or other lighting devices installed on tall buildings shall be equipped with lightning protection devices and shall comply with the current national standard “Code for the design of lightning protection of buildings” GB50057.

4. The manhole covers and handhole covers for road lighting power supply lines, access doors for lighting poles, and outdoor distribution boxes for street lamps should be equipped with a locking anti-theft device that requires the use of special tools.
5. TN-S system or TT system should be used for the grounding form of road lighting distribution system.

Exposed conductive parts of metal poles and components, lamp housings, power distribution and control box screens should be protected and grounded. The current national standards require.

Lighting power supply

Light source selection

Light source selection

The choice of the light source should meet the following requirements:
1 High-pressure sodium lamps should be used for expressways, main roads, secondary roads and branch roads;
2 High-pressure sodium lamps or low-power metal halide lamps should be used in mixed traffic roads for motor vehicles and pedestrians in residential areas;
3 Metal halide lamps can be used for motor vehicle traffic, such as city centers and commercial centers, which require high color identification;
4 Pedestrian streets in industrial areas, sidewalks in residential areas, and sidewalks on both sides of motorway traffic can use low-power metal halide lamps, narrow-bore fluorescent lamps, or compact fluorescent lamps.

Road lighting should not use self-ballasted high-pressure mercury lamps and incandescent lamps.

Lamps and accessories selection

Motorized vehicle lighting should use functional lamps that meet the following requirements:

1 Expressway or trunk roads must use light-cut or semi-bright light fixtures;
Half-cut light fixtures should be used for the secondary roads;
3 Branches should use half-light fixtures.

Pedestrian streets, pedestrian roads, pedestrian tunnels, pedestrian bridges, and non-motorized lanes that require separate lighting should be equipped with functional and decorative lamps.

When decorative lamps are used, the ratio of the upper light-emitting rate should not exceed 25%, and the mechanical strength should meet the requirements of the current national standard “General Safety Requirements and Tests for Luminaires” GB7000.1.

When lighting with high poles

Floodlights or cut-off luminaires with suitable power and light distribution should be selected according to the characteristics of the site.

1. When using sealed road lighting, the protection level of the light source cavity should not be lower than IP54.
2. For roads and places with dangerous environmental pollution and heavy maintenance, the protection level of the light source cavity should not be lower than IP65.
3. The degree of protection of the lamp electrical appliance cavity should not be lesser than IP43.

Lamps with excellent corrosion resistance should be used in areas or places with high levels of corrosive gases such as acid and alkali in the air.

1. For large-scale bridges where motor vehicles are used, etc., where strong vibrations are likely to occur, the lamps used shall meet the vibration-proof requirements stipulated in the current national standard “General Safety Requirements and Tests for Luminaires” GB7000.1.
2. High-intensity gas discharge lamps should be equipped with energy-saving magnetic ballasts, and light sources with smaller power can be fitted with electronic ballasts.
3. The trigger of the high-intensity discharge lamp, ballast and light source installation distance should meet the requirements of the product.

Light source

Lamppost anti-corrosion

Lamppost

Lamppost anti-corrosion

The first type is the direct galvanisation of the lamppost.
The galvanising is to immerse the lamppost in a zinc cylinder (the temperature of the zinc in the zinc cylinder is above 600 degrees and is in the liquid state).
When the lighting post is immersed in the zinc cylinder, the steel part of the lighting post In combination with high-temperature zinc.

A layer of galvanised steel with a thickness of about 85 μm is attached to the surface of the lighting post.

This is the galvanised treatment. After the animated lighting post has a layer of zinc on the surface, it will not rust, and the pure life can reach more than 30 years.

The second type is after the lighting post has been galvanised, the surface is polished and sprayed (the spray is no effect on the streetlights, just for the sake of beauty.
The sprayed light post can have a variety of colours and can be customised by the customer.

The lighting pole is the most basic is galvanised, if not galvanised, spray directly, then the life will not be extended. rust up to six months, the spray layer will fall off. Significantly affect the life of the lamppost.

If galvanised paint anti-corrosion, according to QB1551 “street lamp paint coating” standard acceptance;
Street lamp galvanisation can be accepted according to CJ/T3076-1998 “High-dry lighting facilities conditions”

lamp pole spray technology process

lamp pole spray technology process

The treatment of the lamp post is a plastic spray treatment.
Its primary functions are:
It can make the outdoor lamp pole and monitor bar look more beautiful, nobler, more than 200 kinds of colours can be optional.

Plastic powder has anti-ultraviolet radiation effect.

No pollution to the environment, no harm to the human body.
The lamp pole coating has excellent appearance and firm adhesion, which can prolong the life of street lamps and monitoring rods.
Long-term exposure to the sun will not rust under the sun and rain conditions.

Anti-corrosion capacity of up to 20 years or more.

The spray of the pole is electrostatic powder spraying on the surface of the street lamp and the monitoring rod.
Adheres to the surface of outdoor lights, street lamps and surveillance rods, and plays a consistent and smooth colour.

Lamp pole hot-dip galvanising process:

Lamp pole appearance, lamp panel and all metal fittings appearance should be treated with hot-dip zinc.
The demand for the galvanized layer is uniform; the thickness is not less than 65μm; galvanised presentation should be lubricious.
Fit to GB/T13912- 92 specifications, and provide galvanised test statements.

Lamppost spray process:

Spray adhesion, thickness ≥ 80μm (colour is white) after galvanised should be passivated.
Spray should use imported high-quality plastic powder. Meet ASTM D3359-83 specification, and supply spray test statement.
Lamp stem surface is smooth; there must not be any cracking, leakage welding, continuous porosity, undercut, inequality phenomenon.
The linear error of the pole centre line does not exceed 0.02% of the rod length.
The appearance of the rod body has no unevenness, no traces, no apparent defects in the presence of the lamp pole.

The welding method is automatic sub arc welding, ultrasonic flaw detection inspection, up to welding GBl1345 II standard requirements.

lamp pole

High pole street lamp construction organization design

High pole street lamp construction organization design

High pole street lamp construction organization design can be referenced from the following aspects:

When the lamp post is installed, it must first be checked for quality to ensure that the lamp post to be connected can be installed without quality problems. The specification and type of the lamp post must meet the design requirements, the wire connection must be tight and firm, and the corrosion protection of the metal parts must be complete.
Pay attention to the way to prevent it from colliding when installing the lamp post.

When installing the street lamp pole, pay attention to whether the lead wire is loose or not.
When the lead wire is connected to the trunk wire, the connection point between the lead wire and the trunk wire is not buckled or collided to lead the wire when operating on the rod.
Check whether the lighting angle of the lamp post is accurate, and the lamp holder is not fixed and fixed.

Pay attention to the lamp arm. Lateral displacement or inclination.

After the lamp post is fully installed, test light work shall be performed to check the power transmission.

The test light, and further adjust the illumination angle of the lamps; the maintenance and repair of the lamp post shall be regularly performed.
And problems shall be checked promptly. If it is a street lamp that cannot be repaired The rod should be replaced.
However, this high pole street lamp construction design is more complicated, or it is better to hand it to the relevant street lamp staff.
It is recommended to go to Wanfun Lighting Equipment CO., LTD., which is suitable for high pole street lamps, and then construct and install them together.

With the continuous expansion of the scale of urban construction, urban roads are being built more and more widely, and the construction of street lamps as an important part of the road has received more and more attention.

High pole street lamp

Ten knowledge points for street lamp pole design

street lamp pole design

Ten knowledge points for street lamp pole design

Advantages and disadvantages of different layouts of street lamp pole design.

One-sided arrangement – for narrower roads, he requires that the installation height of the lamp be equal to or greater than the effective width of the road surface.

The advantages are good inducibility and low manufacturing cost.

The disadvantage is that the brightness (illuminance) of the road on the side where the lamp is not set is lower than the team on which the light is placed.

Staggered layout – requires the installation height of the lamp is not less than 0.7 times the effective width of the road surface.
The disadvantage is that the longitudinal uniformity of the luminance is weak, and the inducibility is not as good as the unilateral arrangement.

street lamp pole design installation height, reasonable selection of cantilever length and elevation angle

Installation height (h)—The economic installation height of the gas discharge lamp is 10-15m.

The installation height is too low, the glare of the lamp increases, the high glare decreases, but the lighting utilisation rate decreases.

Cantilever length – should not exceed 1/4 of the mounting height. Impact of long cantilever:

1. Reduce the brightness (illuminance) of sidewalks and curbs on the side where the lamp is installed.

2. The mechanical strength of the cantilever becomes higher and affects the service life.

3. Affect the appearance, resulting in the inconsistent ratio between the cantilever and the light pole. 4. The cost will increase.

Elevation angle – The elevation of the lamp should not exceed 15 degrees.

The installation elevation angle of the luminaire pole is to increase the illumination range of the luminaire on the road surface.

Excessive conventions cause excessive glare, and the brightness of slow lanes and sidewalks is reduced.

Street lamp reasonable power compensation selection

The single street lamp pole design dispersion compensation method is used to increase the power factor of various lamps to more than 0.9.

Which can reduce the capacity of the transformers for street lamps by more than 51%?
And the line loss can be reduced by about 75%, which has a significant energy saving effect.

The choice of lighting distribution methods

For single-phase, power distribution for landscape lighting and road lighting with short power supply distance and small calculation load.
The voltage drop and terminal short-circuit current value shall be verified.

The power distribution cabinet adopts outdoor type, and the bottom side is installed 0.3 meters above the ground floor.

For long power supply distances and large calculation load, three-phase power distribution is adopted.

The three phases of A, B, and C in the low-voltage loop are connected to each group of street lamps in turn to avoid unbalanced three-phase.

The power distribution cabinet adopts outdoor type, and the bottom side is installed 0.3 meters above the ground floor.

The use of three-phase five-wire loops in low-voltage lighting circuits can effectively reduce line voltage losses compared to traditional single-phase loops.

Street lamp cable protection pipe size and laying requirements

The total cross-sectional area of the protective conductor shall not exceed 40% of the cross-sectional area of the pipe.

The inner diameter of the tube should not be less than 1.5 times the outer diameter of the cable.

The cable pipe was buried in the green belt of the sidewalk with a depth of 0.5 meters.
And the steel pipe at the street was replaced with a D50 steel pipe with a thickness of 0.7 meters.

If it can not meet the above requirements, then add a layer of the c20 reinforced solid layer on the top of the pipe.

Street lamp TT grounding system specific practices

Using a local TT system that does not have a PE wire, a 300 mA leakage protector is added to the outlet circuit breaker circuit.

All poles and lamps must be firmly connected with the low steel bars of the poles. Grounding devices should be used.

Grounding resistance should be less than 30Ω. After the base construction of the poles is completed.
The grounding resistance must be tested to meet the requirements.

If the conditions are not met, the grounding level must be increased. , see the specific practices: “National Atlas of Architectural Design,” grounding device installation 03D501-4.

How to design a street lamp according to the calculation load

The size of the transformer is not a problem. The key is the problem of the power supply radius.

In engineering, the power supply radius of the street light box is usually around 700 (if it is necessary to calculate the pressure drop accurately).

Therefore, a transformer of 1.5 kilometres is used, and 4.225 kilometres is recommended. 3 street light boxes changed.

See if the total power of the transformer for the circuit lamp is determined by the capacity, plus 50% of the reserve (some trunk roads need to be advertised or reserve cross street lamps)

First, your power calculation has missing items, the NG250 of the lamp is the power of the high-pressure sodium light source, do not forget the power of the ballast, generally 10-20% of the power of the light source, this is the estimated value.

If the lamp is selected There is a ballast’s power value, which can be added directly.

Second, you are more worried about the transformer capacity.
Therefore, if the power (KW unit, powerful energy) is added together, if it does not exceed 80 kW, this total can be directly divided by 0.85 (that is, the street lamp power factor), and the resulting number is assumed to be S1. Let the transformer splits S1.

The capacity meets the requirement at 70-85%. Or use S1 divided by 0.8 to see the value, select the transformer closer to the standard ability.

Of course, street lamp pole design should consider traffic signal power, advertising power, and public landscape power.

The transformer capacity is usually set at 70%, but it must be combined with the owner to reserve the power.

If the transformer capacity is more significant than 100KVA, we must consider the low voltage compensation.
The calculation method of the above method, but the power factor of 0.85 is changed to 0.9 or 0.92

Analysis of Solution to Electric Shock Accident of Street Lamp pole Leakproof Connector

Analysis of Solution to Electric Shock Accident of Street Lamp pole Leakproof Connector

In recent years, with the continuous expansion of the city scale, the street lamp business has flourished. However, in some areas, the concept, technology, management, and other aspects have not been kept up to date. This has led to a series of security problems. There are many Street Lamp pole, and once it leaks, it is straightforward to cause personal severe safety accidents.

Not only does it bring suffering to the families of the victims, but the relevant government departments also have to bear substantial financial compensation liabilities.

After the deceased’s family brought the municipal engineering management office and the residential construction committee to the court, they were required to compensate for the losses.

Finally, the municipal engineering management office repaid the total cost of more than 430,000 yuan. The matter lasted nearly one year and caused a significant impact in the local area.

We can easily find from the Internet some of the streetlight electric shocks that have occurred in recent years.

The following table:

The cases are not exhaustive. This cannot help, but we do not pay attention to it and do not think about it. We seek to solve the problem of street lamp leakage.

Street lamp leakage accidents are mainly concentrated in lamp pole leakage. There are many reasons for lamp pole leakage.
Some are the ageing of the cable insulation layer in the lamp pole and the lighting of the lamp pole. Some of them are unqualified for the electric light source.
For example, the ballast is broken down, and the lamp pole is charged, or the wire terminal is burned to cause the lamp. The poles are loaded, and the poles are caused by human-made damage.

Finally, the poles are caused by harsh natural environments, such as lightning, typhoon, earthquake and other natural disasters.

Most of the accidents caused by lamp pole leakage occurred in wet and wet weather, especially in the summer of thunderstorms.

This is because the summer high-temperature roads and other facilities operate at a higher temperature and humidity, and the cable insulation layer tends to deteriorate due to ageing, resulting in lamp pole leakage.

On the other hand, because people wear fewer clothes in the summer, the bare skin easily comes into contact with the bright metal parts of the lamp posts, and the exposed portions of the human body and the ground form a circuit that causes electric shocks.

In winter and spring, there are few electric shocks due to the excellent insulation of the shoes. Caused fatal accidents.

Let’s talk about the solution one by one.

1, The ageing of the cable insulation layer in the lamp post and the lamp pole fire

In general, the standard cable insulation should be able to be used for not less than 15 years and should be replaced before the expiration date.
Also, the cable should be fixed in the centre of the pole, not leaning against the pole wall.

2, the electric light source is not qualified

At present, with the promotion of LED light sources and technological advancement, they are strictly controlled when purchasing light sources and require IP65 levels, which can minimise the possibility of accidents.

3, discharge of wire terminals

Most of the current wiring methods adopt stripping and winding ways. In this method, the resistance of the connector is substantial, the sealing effect is weak, and the insulation life is short. Insulating tape wrapping will relax after 3-5 years. If there is moisture or water immersion, it will be discharged. This is the most important factor causing lamp pole charging, accounting for 90%. Before everyone paid attention, there was no right way to solve this problem.

4, Street Lamp pole caused by human damage is charged

Mainly refers to the cable was damaged by theft, the cable fracture is exposed in the mast, quickly lead to discharge accidents.

At present, cameras and burglar alarms are used in some places, but the cost is too high.
One of the most effective and economical methods at present is to improve the cable joints in the mounting hole and use an integral connector to fix it on the terminal block so that stealers can’t start.
Copper-aluminium transition individual connectors and integrated connector solutions can be consulted.

5, Poor natural environment causes lamp poles to live

Mainly refers to two:

First, flooding through the mounting hole, if the cable connector can be waterproof and sealed, do not need to worry about, waterproof sealing connector, please consult.
On the other hand, it refers to thunder and lightning weather. Lightning strikes on the light poles.

It is also possible to increase propaganda and post measures such as lightning-protection signs and electric shock prevention signs on the poles to prevent pedestrians from standing around the poles when lightning strikes floodwaters.

Street Lamp pole leakage accident has brought tremendous life and economic losses to the people. We must pay attention to it. Committed to solving these problems, we believe that this is a corporate social responsibility.

Street Lamp pole

LED street light pole height and spacing design method

LED street light pole

LED street light pole height and spacing design method

Abstract for LED street light pole: The average illuminance of the road surface is one of the evaluation indexes of the city’s motor vehicle traffic roads and sidewalk lighting, and it is also a vital reference indicator for street lamp configuration. A city road should be configured or replaced with LED street lamps. Technically, it first involves the calculation of relevant indicators of lighting. Calculating with the “use factor” method is one of the more straightforward and more effective means.

The formula calculated by the “use factor” method is entirely the same as the conclusion of the study of traditional lighting theory. What we need to do is to input some experimental or theoretical data of the LED street lamp into the formula, get the result and compare it with the requirements of the road lighting design standard. These calculations are also necessary for the design, development, improvement, improvement, and marketing of LED street lamps.

First, concept

The use factor (U) is the ratio of the light flux directly on the road surface to the luminous flux emitted by all the light sources and is related to the height, elevation angle, arrangement, and road width of the street light fixture.

The luminous flux (Φ) is the sum of the energy emitted by the light source and received by the human eye. Indicates the amount of radiant energy per unit of time in lm. Other methods of expression: cd.sr (cd is the unit of luminous intensity: Candela. Sr is a unit of solid angle spherical power.

Illuminance (E) is the ratio of the luminous flux to the illuminated area, in lux lx. 1lx means that the flux of 1lm is evenly distributed over an area of 1 square meter of energy, i.e., lm/m2.

LED street light pole the average road surface illuminance (Eav) is the average value of the illuminance at each point measured or calculated at a predetermined position on the road surface by the relevant regulations.

The maintenance factor (k) is the ratio of the average illuminance or the average luminance on a predetermined surface after the lighting device is used for a specified period to the average illuminance or the average luminance obtained on the same surface when the device is newly mounted under the same conditions.

The installation height (H) of the luminaire is the vertical distance from the light center of the luminaire to the road surface.

The installation spacing (S) of the luminaire is the distance between two adjacent luminaires measured along the centerline of the road.

The cantilever length (XL) is the horizontal distance from the light center of the lamp to the edge stone adjacent to the side, that is, the horizontal distance that the filament extends or retracts into the edge stone.

The effective road width (Weff) for LED street light pole is the breadth of the theoretical road surface used for road lighting design. It is related to the actual width of the road, the cantilever length of the luminaire, and the layout of the luminaires.